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30. The Subordinate Clause: Classification

1) The Noun Clause:
The clause doing the same function as a noun is called the Noun clause.

a) Subordinate Subject Clauses have the function of the subject to the predicate of the main clause. They are introduced by:
- Conjunctions: That / Whether
- Conjunctive Pronouns: Who / What /Which
- Conjunctive Adverbs: When/ Where / How / Why
Eg: That he will come is certain.
Who broke the glass window remained unknown.
How she managed to do it seemed a mystery to me.
Sometimes, the impersonal pronoun ‘it’ is used to introduce the subject clause:
Eg: It is necessary that we should all be present.
It is still unknown when we will come.

b) Subordinate Predicative Clauses have the function of the predicate. They are introduced by the same conjunctions and “if’, conjunctive pronouns and adverbs as in the subject clauses. The linking verb is in the main clause. The predicative clause together with the linking verb forms a compound nominal predicate to the subject of the main clause:
Eg: The question is whether it may rain or not.
It looks as if it were going to rain.
That is why she is so happy.

Relative Clauses
An important type of subordinate clause is the RELATIVE CLAUSE. Here are some examples:
The man [who lives beside us] is ill
The video [which you recommended] was terrific
Relative clauses are generally introduced by a relative pronoun, such aswho, or which. However, the relative pronoun may be ellipted:
The video [you recommended] was terrific
Another variant, the REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSE, has no relative pronoun, and the verb is nonfinite:
The man [living beside us] is ill
(Compare: The man [who lives beside us]...)

3) The Adverbial Clauses: Add the meaning to a verb, an adjective or an adverb of the main clause in the function of an adverbial modifier.
Eg: I will speak to him when he comes. He will follow her wherever she goes.

Adverbial clauses are connected to the main clause by means of conjunctions: when, why, after, because, if, etc. On the ground of their meaning, adverbial clauses are classified into 8 kinds:

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29. Subordinate clause in complex sentences.

According to the degree of self-dependence of clauses complex sentences are divided into monolythic and segregative sentence structures. Monolythic complex sentences are based on obligatory subordinative connections of clauses, whereas segregative complex sentences are based on optional subordinative connections.

Monolythic complex sentences:
1) merger complex sentences, i.e. sentences with subject and predicative subordinate clauses, where the subordinate clause is fused with the principal one.
E.g. The trouble is we are to change our plans.

2) valency monolyth complexes, whose subordinate clauses are dependent on the obligatory right-hand valency of the verb in the principal clause. Here belong sentences with object clauses and valency-determined adverbial clauses.
E.g. I think a man like that is a real artist. – I think -…
e.g. Put the book where it belongs. – Put the book - …

3) correlation monolyth complexes, which are based on subordinate correlations. Complex sentences with restrictive subordinate clauses are included into this subtype.
E.g. The girl played the piano with such feeling as you had never experienced.

4) arrangement monolyth complexes, whose obligatory connection between the principal and subordinate clauses is determined only by the linear order of clausal positions.
E.g. If you refused her present, it would upset her.


28. Compound sentence: classification

The compound sentence is a combination of two or more simple or complex sentences. While the complex sentence has only one main clause, the compound has two or more independent clauses making statements, questions, or commands. Hence the definition,-
A compound sentence is one which contains two or more independent clauses.
This leaves room for any number of subordinate clauses in a compound sentence: the requirement is simply that it have at least two independent clauses.

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27. Types of simple sentences, illocutionary force

Sentences can be classified according to their structural, semantic and
pragmatic properties.

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26. The Clause.

Sentences can be broken down into clauses.
A Clause is a part of a sentence that usually contains a Subject and a Verb. It is usually connected to the other part of the Sentence by a Conjunction. It is not a complete sentence on its own. However, a sentence containing only one clause is called a simple sentence.
For example:
The boy is going to the school, and he is going to eat there.

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25. Obligatory and optional parts of the sentence.

The syntactic functions or the members of the sentence are traditionally divided into principal (main)and secondary.
The principal parts of the sentence are the subject and the predicate, which modify each other: the subject is the “person” modifier of the predicate, and the predicate is the “process” modifier of the subject; they are interdependent.

The secondary parts are: the object – a substance modifier of the predicate; the attribute – a quality modifier of substantive parts, either the subject or the object; the adverbial modifier – a quality modifier of the predicate; the apposition – a substance modifier of the subject; the parenthesis (parenthetical enclosure) - a detached speaker-bound modifier either of one of the nominative parts of the sentence or of the sentence in general; the address (addressing enclosure) – a modifier of the destination of the whole sentence; the interjection (interjectional enclosure) – an emotional modifier.


24. The adverbial modifier

It is a secondary part of the sentence modifying a part of the sentence
expressed by a verb, a verbal noun, an adjective, or an adverb, and serving to
characterise an action or a property as to its quality or intensity, or to indicate the
way an action is done, the time, place, cause, purpose, or condition, with which the
action or the manifestation of the quality is connected.

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23. The Object

The Object is a secondary part of the sentence expressed by a verb, a noun, a substantival pronoun, an adjective, a numeral, or an adverb, and denoting a thing to which the action passes on, which is a result of the action, in reference to which an action is committed or a property is manifested, or denoting an action as object of another action.

Objects differ form one another
• by their morphological composition, by the parts of speech or phrases which perform the function of object
• by the type of their relation to the action expressed by the verb (direct/indirect)

Classification of object:
1. Prepositional and non-prepositional objects
2. Morphological types (noun, pronoun, substantivized adjective, infinitive, gerund)
3. Direct/indirect, is applied only to objects expressed by nouns or pronouns. There are sentences in which the predicate is expressed by the verbs send, show, lend, give. These verbs usually take 2 different kinds of objects simultaneously: (1) an object expressing the thing which is sent, shown, lent, given, etc. (2) the person or persons to whom the thing is sent, shown, lent, given, etc. The difference between the 2 relations is clear enough: the direct object denotes the thing immediately affected by the action denoted by the predicate verb, whereas the indirect object expresses the person towards whom the thing is moved, e.g. We sent them a present. The indirect object stands 1st, the direct object comes after it.


22. Primary and secondary predicates.

In every sentence there is bound to be predication, without which there would be no sentence. In a usual two-member sentence the predication is between the subject and the predicate. In most sentences this is the only predication they contain. However, there are also sentences which contain one more predication, which is not between the subject and the predicate of the sentence. This predication may conveniently be termed secondary predication.

A secondary predicate is a (mostly adjectival) predicative expression that conveys information about the subject but is not the main predicate of the clause. This structure may be analysed in many different ways.
These may be resultative, as in (1) and (2) or descriptive as in (3).
(1) She painted the town red
(2) The film left me cold
(3) Susan walked around naked.



The compound nominal predicate denotes a certain state or quality of the subject, it`s a qualifying predicate.
The compound nominal predicate consists of two parts the link-verb and the predicative. The predicative names a state or a property. It serves to characterize the subject. It can be expressed by a word of any notional part of speech or by a phrase or a clause.
She is a doctor (noun)
She is beautiful(adjective)
Our task is that we should know grammar well. (Predicative clause)

Sometimes the predicative is expressed by an infinitive or a gerundial complex
E.g.The most important thing for us is to meet her .
The greatest trouble was our not knowing all the details.

The link-verb expresses different grammatical categories. It has no independent meaning and its function is to connect the subject with the predicative. It`s usually expressed by the verb to be but it can also be expressed by some other verb which loses its lexical meaning and acquires the abstract meaning of
1.Being(be, feel, look, smell, taste) (sound funny, burn dim, suck dry,)
2.Becoming(become, grow, get, turn) (to be called Bob, to be left alone,)
3.Remaining(remain, continue, keep, stay) (to be elected president)
4.Seeming and appearing(seem, appear) E.g.The weather turned cold.You look great.


20. The verbal predicate (simple, compound)

The Simple Verbal Predicate denotes an activity performed (suffered) by the object.
Its expressed by the finite form of the verb in the required tense, mood, aspect and voice. Itcan also be expressed by a set expression (phrase)
I like grammar
.We are reading English books. (Analytical form)
He pays much attention to his grammar.(Set phrase)

The Compound Verbal Predicate consists of two parts. They are called:The semi-auxiliary part and the notional part. The notional part names an action or a process and its mostly expressed by an infinitive or a gerund.The semi-auxiliary part expresses different grammatical categories (tense, mood, aspect etc.)
Care should be taken that the compound verbal predicate is never used in its pure type.Its always used in one of its variants. Depending on the nature of the semi-auxiliary part we differentiate the following types of the compound verbal predicate:

In this predicate the semi-auxiliary part is expressed by a modal verb or by a word phrase of modal semantics. (try,intend,have to,to be to,to be about,)
In this predicate the semi-auxiliary part is expressed by a verb of aspective semantics i.e.by a verb denoting the beginning, continuation or end of some action. (begin,continue,go on,stop,finish,cease,start,carry on,commence,set about,keep,proceed,give up,leave off)
It can also be expressed by the verbs used to or would which express a repeated action in the past. E.g. It began raining. He used to call on us every Monday.
In this predicate the semi-auxiliary part is expressed by a verb of aspective semantics which is modified by a modal element (modal phrase etc.) E.g.It may begin raining soon.


19. The Predicate.

The predicate denotes the action or property of the thing expressed by the
subject. It can be expressed by numerous ways. The predicate expresses the
predicative feature which characterized the object expressed by the subject, thus it
realizes the categorial function. Being a link between the subject and the right
environment of the verb, it performs the relative function.

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The Subject.

The subject is the independent member of a two-member predication, containing the person component of predicativity.
The subject is generally defined as a word or a group of words denoting the thing we speak about. The subject of a simple sentence can be a word, a syntactical word-morpheme or a complex.
As a word it can belong to different parts of speech, but it is mostly a noun or a pronoun. A word used as a subject combines the lexical meaning with the structural meaning of “person”. So it is at the same time the structural and the notional subject.
The syntactical word-morphemes there and it may also function as secondary subjects (It being cold, we put on our coats. I knew of there being no one to help them). The analysis of sentences like He was seen to enter the house, is a point at issue. Traditionally the infinitive is said to form part of the complex subject (He…to enter). Ilyish maintains that though satisfactory from the logical point of view, this interpretation seems to be artificial grammatically, this splitting of the subject being alien to English. He suggests that only HE should be treated as a subject, whereas was sees to enter represents a peculiar type of compound predicate. Some grammarians (Smirnitsky, Ganshina) speak of definite-personal, indefinite-personal, impersonal sentences, but it is a semantical classification of subjects, not sentences.


17. Simple Sentence. Structure.

The most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence, which contains only one clause. A simple sentence can be as short as one word:
Usually, however, the sentence has a subject as well as a predicate and both the subject and the predicate may have modifiers. All of the following are simple sentences, because each contains only one clause:
Ice melts.
The ice melts quickly.
The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.
Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.
As you can see, a simple sentence can be quite long -- it is a mistake to think that you can tell a simple sentence from a compound sentence or a complex sentence simply by its length.


16. The sentence. Predicativity

1. A sentence is a proposition expressed by words (something true). A proposition is the semantic invariant of all the members of modal and communicative paradigms of sentences and their transforms. But besides sentences which contain propositions there are interrogative and negative sentences. Speech is emotional. There is no one to one relationship. Then a sentence can be grammatically correct, but from the point of view of logic it won’t be correct, true to life (Water is a gas). Laws of thinking are universal but there are many languages. Grammar and Logic don’t coincide.
2. A sentence is a subject-predicate structure. What are the subject and the predicate? Grammatical subject can only be defined in terms of the sentence. Moreover the grammatical subject often does not indicate what we are ‘talking about’ (The birds have eaten all the fruit. It is getting cold). Besides, this definition leaves out verbless sentences. There are one-member sentences. They are non-sentences? Conclusion – a sentence is a structural scheme.
3. Phonological: A sentence is a flow of speech between 2 pauses. But speech is made up of incomplete, interrupted, unfinished, or even quite chaotic sentences. Speech is made up of utterances but utterances seldom correspond to sentences.

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15. The Noun: Gender.

It’s doubtful whether the grammatical category of gender exists in Modern English. Gender doesn’t find regular morphological expression.
The distinction of male, female and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun:

Masculine (names of male beings) - boy, man, husband, cock, bachelor
Feminine (names of female beings) – girl, woman, wife, cow, hen
Neuter (names of inanimate objects) – table, house.

Gender may be expressed by word-formation:
a) feminine suffixes –ess ( actress, hostess, tigress), -ine (heroine), -ette (usherette)
b) compounds of dif.patterns: 1. N+N stem (boy-friend-girl-friend; a Tom-cat- a Tabby-cat; a doctor-a woman-doctor; a landlord- a landlady); 2. Pronoun+ N (a he-wolf- a she-wolf; a he-cousin-a she-cousin); 3. oppositions of lexemes ( niece-nephew, bull-cow, girl-boy).
There are a lot of nouns in English, that belong to the so-called “common gender” (person, cousin, parent, president, friend, doctor).

There are also some traditional associations of certain nouns with gender:
a) moon and earth are referred as feminine, sun- as masculine.
b) the names of vessels (ship, boat, ice-breaker, steamer) are referred to as feminine.
c) the names of vehicles (car, carriage, coach) may also be referred to as feminine, especially by their owners.
d) the names of countries, if the country is not considered as a mere geographical territory, are referred to as feminine.

All these arguments speak in favour of treating the category of gender in English nouns as not a purely grammatical, but alexico-gram. category, because gender finds a lexical (special suffixes & lexemes) and a gram. expression in the language ( replacing nouns by personal pronouns)


14. Mood.

The category of MOOD is the most controversial category of the verb.
The category of MOOD expresses the character of connection between the process denoted by the verb and the actual reality, either presenting the process as a fact that really happened, happens or will happen, or treating it as an imaginary phenomenon, i.e. the subject of a hypothesis (предположение), speculation (размышление), desire.
Mood is the form of the verb that shows the mode or manner in which a thought is expressed.

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13. Passive vs Compaund Adjectival Predicate

When dealing with the category of Voice the problem is that the Passive Voice constructions coincide with the compound nominal predicate ( was opened ). If this construction (be + Participle II) expresses a state then it is a compound nominal predicate in the Active Voice. Ex. The window was broken and it was cold in the room. She was excited (a.v.) She was excited by the friend's words. (P. V.)


12. Passive vs Active

When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.

English language use a periphrastic passive voice; that is, it is not a single word form, but rather a construction making use of other word forms. Specifically, it is made up of a form of the auxiliary verb to be and a past participle of the main verb.

The frequency of occurrence of the English Passive Voice is very great, greater than in Russian. One of the reasons is that the number of verbs capable of forming the Passive Voice is greater in English than in Russian. In many languages: PV – transitive verbs, in English: PV – any object verb.

The idea of the Passive voice is expressed not only by means of “to be + P2”, but by means of “get”, “come”, “go” + P2 and “get” + passive infinitive (ingressive meaning - He got involved; He got to be respected). The verbs get and become retain to some extent their lexical meaning;

Passive constructions:
• Direct Passive (The letter was written yesterday)
• Indirect Passive (I was given a very interesting book)
• Prepositional Passive (The doctor was sent for)
• Phraseological Passive (Care should be taken not to confuse these words)
• Adverbial Passive (The house has not been lived in for many years)


11. Voice

In grammar, the Voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, it is said to be in the passive voice.

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